Towards a Swachh Bharat
“A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150 birth anniversary in 2019,” said Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Swachh Bharat Mission at Rajpath in New Delhi. On 2nd October 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission was launched throughout length and breadth of the country as a national movement.
While leading the mass movement for cleanliness, the Prime Minister exhorted people to fulfil Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of a clean and hygienic India. Shri Narendra Modi himself initiated the cleanliness drive at Mandir Marg Police Station. Picking up the broom to clean the dirt, making Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a mass movement across the nation, the Prime Minister said people should neither litter, nor let others litter. He gave the mantra of ‘Na gandagi karenge, Na karne denge.’ Shri Narendra Modi also invited nine people to join the cleanliness drive and requested each of them to draw nine more into the initiative.
By inviting people to participate in the drive, the Swachhta Abhiyan has turned into a National Movement. A sense of responsibility has been evoked among the people through the Clean India Movement. With citizens now becoming active participants in cleanliness activities across the nation, the dream of a ‘Clean India’ once seen by Mahatma Gandhi has begun to get a shape.
The Prime Minister has helped spread the message of Swachh Bharat by urging people through his words & action. He carried out a cleanliness drive in Varanasi as well. He wielded a spade near River Ganga at Assi Ghat in Varanasi under the Clean India Mission. He was joined by a large group of local people who cooperated in the Swachhta Abhiyan. Understanding the significance of sanitation, Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has simultaneously addressed the health problems that Indians families have to deal with due to lack of proper toilets in their homes.
People from different sections of the society have come forward and joined this mass movement of cleanliness. From government officials to jawans, bollywood actors to the sportspersons, industrialists to spiritual leaders, all have lined up for the noble work. Millions of people across the country have been day after day joining the cleanliness initiatives of the government departments, NGOs and local community centres to make India clean. Organising frequent cleanliness campaigns to spreading awareness about hygiene through plays and music is also being widely carried out across the nation.
Bollywood celebrities to television actors came forward and actively joined the initiative. Noted personalities like Amitabh Bachchan, Aamir Khan, Kailash Kher, Priyanka Chopra and entire cast and crew of SAB TV show ‘Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah’ lend a hand to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Numerous sportspersons like Sachin Tendulkar, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal and Mary Kom’s contribution the clean India drive have been commendable.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in his monthly radio address ‘Mann Ki Baat’, has time and again lauded the efforts of individuals and various organizations across the country that have helped make the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a huge success. The Prime Minister complemented a team of Government officials of Madhya Pradesh’s Harda district for their role towards a cleaner India. PM also praised five students of New Horizon School in Bangalore who developed a mobile based application for buying and selling waste.
Organisations like ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, XLRI Jamshedpur and IIM-Bangalore initiated mass cleanliness drives and spread awareness among the general public.
Shri Narendra Modi has always openly lauded the participation of people via social media. Shri Narendra Modi appreciated the efforts of Temsutula Imsong, Darshika Shah and a group of volunteers for their ‘Mission Prabhughat’ initiative in Varanasi.
The ‘#MyCleanIndia’ was also launched simultaneously as a part of the Swachh Bharat drive to highlight the cleanliness work carried out by citizens across the nation.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has become a ‘Jan Andolan’ receiving tremendous support from the people. Citizens too have turned out in large numbers and pledged for a neat and cleaner India. Taking the broom to sweep the streets, cleaning up the garbage, focussing on sanitation and maintaining a hygienic environment have become a practice after the launch of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. People have started to take part and are helping spread the message of ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness.’
Swachh Bharat Mission in urban areas is focused on building individual toilets, community toilets and solid waste management. In rural areas, the emphasis is on behavioral change intervention including interpersonal communication, strengthening implementation and delivery mechanisms down to the Gram Panchayat level, and giving States flexibility to design delivery mechanisms that take into account local cultures, practices, sensibilities and demands. The incentive for building toilet has been increased by Rs 2000 from Rs 10000 to Rs 12000. Funds are also provided for Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) in Gram Panchayats.
Corruption In Sports: Money At Any Cost
Sport is a big phenomenon of today, it is very important part of today life. However, sport is rather contradictory phenomenon. It is connected with big humanistic values and it formats life and values of billions of people on the one side. It is also connected with dirty business, doping, corruption and violence on the other side. Corruption in sport should be matter of concern not of pessimism. We are not speaking about decline of sport values. But we are facing of a new challenge. This challenge is higher as the issue is still not dealt with properly. We may perhaps compare doping in sport with corruption in sport. However, doping has been seriously treated for many years now, with number of experts, scientific background and international co-ordination structures. Nothing of it exists in the area of corruption in sport yet.
Just over a decade after cricket was hit by one its biggest scandals, three Pakistani cricketers were given prison sentences last week by a London court on charges of spotfixing. For the first time in cricket’s history, players face jail terms of between six and 30 months, besides the prospect of never again playing the game. This is in stark contrast to investigations into match-fixing in 2000 where the central figure was the former South African captain, Hansie Cronje. Cricketers from various countries were alleged to have been involved, including a former captain of the Indian team who is now a member of the Indian Parliament. Enquiry commissions were set up in South Africa and Pakistan following the scandal, but most players got away with bans, fines or in some cases just a reprimand. After the events of 2000, cricket’s governing body, the International Cricket Council, set up the Anti-Corruption and Security Unit to tackle the menace of match fixing. But ironically it was a sting operation by the now discredited and defunct News of the World in 2010 which exposed the spot-fixing by the Pakistani cricketers and provided evidence for sentencing.
While cricket with its elaborate rules is particularly prone to spotfixing - where you bet on individual events within the game rather than the result itself - the phenomenon of fixing is hardly confined to cricket. We are at a time when the world of sport seems to be awash in corruption. Earlier this year, prosecutors in South Korea indicted an astonishing 46 football players on charges of fixing matches in the football K-League. According to the South Korean prosecutors, the players received up to US$50,000 for fixing matches, and sometimes even bet on the outcome. In Turkey, the champion club Fenerbahce is at the centre of a match-fixing scandal, having won 16 of its 17 league matches at the end of the season to clinch the title on goal difference. It’s not just sportspersons who are in the dock. Sports administrators all over the world are facing scrutiny. FIFA, football’s governing body and the richest sports association in the world, is in the midst of its biggest scandal. FIFA’s 24-member executive committee, which has had Sepp Blatter at the helm of affairs for 13 long years, is among the most sought after clubs. But this elite club has now been raven apart with influential committee members accused of paying bribes.
The head of the Caribbean and North and Central American region has already resigned. And Qatar’s Mohamed bin Hammam, who was head of Asia’s football federation, has been banned for life by FIFA’s ethics committee. Bin Hammam is not going down without a fight. He has not only challenged FIFA’a ban but also promised to reveal wrongdoings by Blatter. This has put a question mark over the bidding process for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups which were awarded to Russia and Qatar respectively. What many had long suspected about the cronyism and corruption within FIFA is now coming to light.The obvious reason why there are so many corruption scandals involving both players and administrators is the incredible amount of money involved in sport. FIFA’s current annual revenue is now pegged at US$1.3 billion and it even gets tax breaks from Switzerland where it is headquartered. There is plenty of money too in other sports like cricket which enjoys much less global popularity, but is akin to a religion in South Asia. In 2010-11, the Board of Control for Cricket in India generated over US$400 million in revenues. With this kind of money it is not surprising that corruption has eaten into sport. While sports administrators in many parts of the world have never had a great reputation, it is the corruption of players that is more worrying. Many individual sporting disciplines have been tainted by performance enhancing drugs, but that is something the administrators have tried to check by putting in place an elaborate regime of doping tests.
Transparency International has produced this collection of articles, links and information resources to cast a light on the vulnerabilities of the sport world to corruption as well as efforts being undertaken to combat it. We speak with investigative journalists. We look at the mysterious lack of convictions in sports corruption. We examine a book that details the history of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). And we talk about the role of civil society organisations in keeping the beautiful game beautiful. If sport was a largely informal affair a century ago, it has morphed into a full-fledged industry – total costs, including infrastructure, of the 2006 World Cup in Germany are estimated at upwards of • 6 billion (see interview with sport journalist Jens Weinreich). With such increasingly huge sums in play, whether in terms merchandising, sponsorship, betting or athlete salaries, the seduction of and vulnerability to corrupt behaviour has grown. The sport world has responded slowly and, to date, inadequately. It is as serious a threat as doping; only it has the potential to inflict much greater damage on the sport world and the communities, representing billions of people globally, that support it.
Football scandals in Germany, Brazil, Italy, Belgium and China are evidence that the problem is real and it is global. This means that international sports associations such as FIFA and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) must lead the way in terms of systematic enforcement of a zero-tolerance policy on corruption. FIFA is currently trumpeting the introduction of an Ethics Commission as well as the creation of a commercial firm called Early Warning System designed to detect irregularities in game scoring. These are laudable efforts, but the phenomenon runs deeper than match-fixing. There is a need to address the conflicts of interest that are part and parcel of a familial network of athletic officials that spans the globe. While statements have been made and ethical codes adopted, what is missing is rigorous enforcement and follow-through, including the systematic ejection of tainted officials.
For preventing and eliminating corruption it is important to know the scope of corruption and areas where it occurs. Knowing this it is also important to know patterns under which corruption is predominantly performed. This simple request is not easy to fulfill. When corruption is regarded it is very difficult everywhere, in all sectors of society, to get reliable figures. Especially to get police and judicial statistic, which is successfully used in many other areas of crime and social pathology, do not bring required information. Detected or reported corruption is always only an iceberg of the whole problem and not always indicates correctly areas where corruption is most wide spread. A comprehensive study of this issue would be most desirable. But even for the short study like this one a survey of international press and Internet provides interesting mapping of the problem. It appears that corruption can be found in almost any imaginable areas of sport. The main areas are match fixing, embezzlement or misusing of sport funds, corruption in hosting of games, corruption in changing sport results, corruption in transfers of players, corrupted elections in sporting bodies. We can also mention situations where high sport officials were convicted of corruption in their non-sport activities which is not corruption in sport itself but it certainly influences the sport life.We also keep aside a role of politics in sport which might be very close to political corruption of sport. It represents another very interesting and controversial issue of sport closely related to the issue of corruption in sport.