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Aqa Critical Thinking Textbook

TEXTBOOKS

  • Lacewing, M. Philosophy for AS and A Level, Routledge 2017
    Lacewing, M. Philosophy for A-Level, Routledge 2017
  • Lacewing, M. Philosophy for AS, Routledge 2008
  • Lacewing, M. Philosophy for A2: Unit 3, Routledge 2009
  • Lacewing, M. Philosophy for A2: Unit 4, Routledge 2009
  • Butler, M. AQA Philosophy for AS, Nelson Thornes 2008
  • Cluett, C AQA Philosophy A2, Nelson Thornes 2009
  • Hayward, J. AQA An Introduction to Philosophy for AS Level, Hodder 2008

GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS TO PHILOSOPHY

Short, accessible introductions

  • Blackburn, S. Think, OUP 2001
  • Craig, E. Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2002
  • Law, S. The Philosophy Files, Orion 2002; The Outer Limits, Orion 2003; The Philosophy Gym, Hodder Headline 2003: three collections of very accessible short pieces on a wide range of philosophical puzzles
  • Nagel, T. What Does It All Mean?, OUP 1987 (reprinted 2004)
  • Warburton, N. Philosophy: the Basics (5th ed.), Routledge 2012: the most popular and enduring introduction of them all

More in-depth introductions

  • Grayling, A. (ed.) Philosophy: a Guide Through the Subject and Philosophy: Further Through the Subject, OUP 1998: specifically written for undergraduates at the University of London, the articles give clear and concise coverage of central philosophical issues
  • Greetham, B. Philosophy, Palgrave Macmillan 2006
  • Hollis, M. Invitation to Philosophy, Blackwell 1997
  • Horner, C. & Westacott, E. Thinking Through Philosophy, CUP 2000
  • Morton, A. Philosophy in Practice, Blackwell 1995
  • Teichman, J. & Evans, K. Philosophy: a Beginner’s Guide, Blackwell 1991

Two reference works

Journals

    • Think (www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/think/index.php)
    • The Philosopher’s Magazine (www.philosophersnet.com)
    • Philosophy Now (www.philosophynow.org)
    • Dialogue (www.dialogue.org.uk): for Philosophy of Religion and Ethics
    • Philosophy Compass (http://philosophy-compass.com): more in-depth survey articles

 PHILOSOPHICAL SKILLS AND CRITICAL THINKING

Philosophical skills

  • Baggini, J. & Fosl, P., The Philosopher’s Toolkit, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010: a very good compendium of clear explanations of concepts and arguments
  • Martinich, A., Philosophical Writing (3rd ed), Wiley-Blackwell, 2005: the Bible on approach and technique
  • Saunders, C. et al, Doing Philosophy: a Practical Guide for Students, Continuum, 2008: designed for undergraduates, but with lots of very helpful information on skills
  • Warburton, N. The Basics of Essay Writing, Routledge, 2007
  • Warburton, Nigel Thinking A to Z, Routledge 2000
  • Warburton, N. Philosophy: the Essential Study Guide, Routledge, 2004
  • Weston, Anthony A Rulebook for Arguments, Hackett 2000

Critical Thinking

This is a collection of recommendations for undergraduates, but many are suitable for A level students as well. The first three books are perhaps the most popular, and also have on-line back-up. The McKay is particular recommended.

  • Govier, Trudy 1992: Practical Study of Argument. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Hurley, Patrick 2000: A Concise Introduction to Logic. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
  • McKay, Thomas 2000: Reasons, Explanations, and Decisions: Guidelines for Critical Thinking. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
  • Bowell, Tracy and Kemp, Gary Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide, Routledge 2002
  • Fisher, Alec Critical Thinking: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press 2001
  • Fisher, Alec The Logic of Real Arguments, Cambridge University Press 2004
  • Fogelin, Robert Understanding Arguments, Harcourt College Publishers 2001
  • Hospers, John An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, Routledge 1996
  • Moore, N.B. and Parker, R. Critical Thinking: Evaluating Arguments in Everyday Life, Mayfield Publishing Company 1989
  • Ruggiero, Vincent Beyond Feelngs: A Guide to Critical Thinking, Mayfield Publishing Company 1984
  • Shand, John Arguing Well, Routledge. 2000
  • Thomson, Anne Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction, Routledge 2002
  • Thomson, Anne, Critical Reasoning in Ethics: A Practical Introduction, Routledge 1999
  • Tymoczko, T. and Henle, J. Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic. Springer 1999

EPISTEMOLOGY

  • Audi, R. Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to Theory of Knowledge, Routledge 1998: a very accessible, clear, introductory text
  • Ayer, A. J. The Problem of Knowledge, various editions: a classic of 20th-century philosophical writing about many of the central problems of epistemology, written in a clear, engaging style
  • Carruthers, P. Human Knowledge and Human Nature, OUP 1992: on the origin of concepts and nature of knowledge
  • Cole, P. The Theory of Knowledge, Hodder & Stoughton 2002: very accessible, but a little thin
  • Dancy, J. & Sosa, E. A Companion to Epistemology, Blackwell 1997: an excellent encyclopaedic reference work with an astonishing amount of useful material about different aspects of the subject in one volume
  • Hetherington, S. Epistemology: The Key Thinkers, Continuum 2012: useful for a number of the anthology texts
  • Lehrer, K. Theory of Knowledge, 2nd edition, Perseus 2000: another good introduction, which should be accessible to readers who are less familiar with the theory of knowledge
  • Martin, RM Epistemology: A Beginner’s Guide, Oneworld Publications 2010
  • Nagel, J Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press 2014
  • O’Brien, D. An Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, Polity 2006
  • Pritchard, D What is this thing called Knowledge?, 3rd Edition, Routledge 2013: very engaging read
  • Russell, B. The Problems of Philosophy, various editions, e.g. Opus 2001: as with Ayer
  • Williams, M. Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology, OUP 2001: an excellent introduction, if a bit less easy than Audi

ETHICS

The anthology includes two introductions to ethics:

  • Rachels, J. The Elements of Moral Philosophy
  • Warnock, G. Contemporary Moral Philosophy

Other helpful texts include:

  • Blackburn, S. Being Good, OUP 2001: a lively, engaging, and quick introduction to the main issues of ethics, written in a very clear style.
  • Singer, P. (ed.) A Companion to Ethics, Blackwell 1991: a great resource. Each essay, written for the beginner, is an excellent survey of a single topic.
  • Benn, P. Ethics, UCL Press 1998: a careful and accurate introduction across the whole range of normative and metaethical issues.
  • Norman, R. The Moral Philosophers, Clarendon Press 1983: one of the best introductions to the normative and metaethical theories of ethics via the great philosophers who held them. It also includes a good discussion of moral realism.
  • Williams, B. Morality, CUP 1976: difficult, but excellent, discussions of subjectivism, relativism, the idea of ‘good’, and utilitarianism.
  • Smart, J. & Williams, B. Utilitarianism: For and Against, CUP 1973: one of the most informative discussions of utilitarianism – its structure, its motives, and its problems.
  • Baggini, J. Philosophy: Key Themes, Palgrave MacMillan 2002: written for the A level
  • Crisp. R. Mill on Utilitarianism, Routledge 1997: a thorough, but clear, treatment of Bentham and Mill’s utilitarianism
  • Blackburn, S. Ethics: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2003
  • Jones, G. Exploring Ethics, John Murray 2000

Specifically on practical ethical issues:

  • Singer, P. Practical Ethics (2nd ed.), CUP 1993: defending a utilitarian standpoint but discussing a wide range of arguments in practical ethics.
  • Glover, J. Causing Death and Saving Lives, Penguin 1977: as with Singer, but more detailed
  • DeGrazia, D. Animal Rights: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2002
  • Hope, T. Medical Ethics: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2004

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

  • Baggini, J. Philosophy: Key Themes, Palgrave MacMillan 2002: written for the A level
  • Crick, B. Democracy: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2002
  • Freeden, M. Ideology: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2003
  • Harris, E. Nationalism, Edinburgh University Press 2005
  • Heywood, A. Political Ideologies: an Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan 2003
  • Heywood, A. Politics, Palgrave Macmillan 1997
  • Heywood, A. Political Theory, Palgrave Macmillan 1999
  • Heywood, A. Key Concepts in Politics, Palgrave Macmillan 2000: all introductory textbooks by the Chief Examiner in A Level Government and Politics
  • Knowles, D. Political Philosophy, Routledge 2001
  • Lee, S. Law and Morals: Warnock, Gillick and Beyond, OUP 1986: a short and readable survey of the relevant debates on questions of law
  • Miller, D. Political Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2003
  • Minogue, K. Politics: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 1995: readable and very short
  • Raphael, D. D. Problems of Political Philosophy, Palgrave 1990: readable, thematic approach
  • Rosen & Wolff, Political Thought, OUP 1999
  • Swift, A. Political Philosophy: a Beginner’s Guide for Students and Politicians (2nd ed.), Polity 2006: concentrates on the themes of social justice, liberty, equality and community, and manages to condense many wide-ranging debates in clear and succinct discussions
  • Thomas, G. Introduction to Political Philosophy, Duckworth 2000: much lengthier than Wolff, but still very clear and readable
  • Wolff, J. An Introduction to Political Philosophy, OUP 1996: a very readable introductory book
  • Zwolinski, M. Arguing About Political Philosophy, Routledge 2009
  • Specifically on tolerance: McKinnon, C. Toleration, Routledge 2005

MORAL PHILOSOPHY

  • Baggini, J. Philosophy: Key Themes, Palgrave MacMillan 2002: written for the A Level
  • Barrow, R. An Introduction to Moral Philosophy and Moral Education, Routledge 2007
  • Benn, P. Ethics, UCL Press 1998: a careful and accurate introduction across the whole range of normative and metaethical issues.
  • Blackburn, S. Being Good, OUP 2001: a lively, engaging, and quick introduction to the main issues of ethics, written in a very clear style.
  • Blackburn, S. Ethics: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2003
  • Crisp. R. Mill on Utilitarianism, Routledge 1997: a thorough, but clear, treatment of Bentham and Mill’s utilitarianism
  • DeGrazia, D. Animal Rights: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2002
  • Fisher & Kirchin, Arguing About Metaethics, Routledge 2006
  • Glover, J. Causing Death and Saving Lives, Penguin 1977: as with Singer, but more detailed
  • Hope, T. Medical Ethics: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2004
  • Jones, G. Exploring Ethics, John Murray 2000
  • Mackie, J. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Penguin 1977 (or Viking 1991): the first two chapters present a powerful attack on moral realism
  • Mizzoni, J. Ethics:The Basics, Wiley-Blackwell 2009
  • Norman, R. The Moral Philosophers, Clarendon Press 1983: one of the best introductions to the normative and metaethical theories of ethics via the great philosophers who held them. It also includes a good discussion of moral realism
  • Rachels, J. Can Ethics Provide Answers?, Rowman & Littlefield 1996
  • Rachels, J. The Elements of Moral Philosophy (5th ed.), McGraw-Hill 2006: one of the clearest, mid-length introductions to ethics there is. He considers normative theories in relation to practical issues.
  • Singer, P. (ed.) A Companion to Ethics, Blackwell 1991: an irreplaceable resource. Each essay, written for the beginner, is an excellent survey of a single topic.
  • Singer, P. Practical Ethics (2nd ed.), CUP 1993: defending a utilitarian standpoint but discussing a wide range of arguments in practical ethics.
  • Smart, J. & Williams, B. Utilitarianism: For and Against, CUP 1973: one of the most informative discussions of utilitarianism – its structure, its motives, and its problems.
  • Stewart, N. Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy, Polity Press 2008
  • Williams, B. Morality, CUP 1976: difficult, but excellent, discussions of subjectivism, relativism, the idea of ‘good’, and utilitarianism.

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION

General introductions

  • Clack, B. & Clack, B. The Philosophy of Religion: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed), Polity Press 2008
  • Davies, B. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, 3rd ed, OUP 2004
  • Evans, C. S. Pocket Dictionary of Apologetics and Philosophy of Religion, InterVarsity Press 2002
  • Hick, J. Philosophy of Religion, 4th ed., Prentice Hall 1990
  • Jackson, R. The God of Philosophy, The Philosopher’s Magazine 2001
  • Jones, G. et. al. Philosophy of Religion, John Murray 2005
  • Peterson, M. et. al. Reason and Religious Belief, 4th ed., OUP 2012
  • Zagzebski, L. Philosophy of Religion: An Historical Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007

Collections

  • Davies, B. (ed.) Philosophy of Religion: a Guide and Anthology, OUP 2000
  • Davies, B. (ed.) Philosophy of Religion: a Guide to the Subject, Cassell 1998
  • Mitchell, B. (ed.) The Philosophy of Religion, OUP 1971
  • Palmer, M. The Philosophy of Religion: A Commentary and Sourcebook, Lutterworth 2008
  • Quinn & Taliaferro (ed.) A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Blackwell 1999

More focused topics or approach

  • Baggini, J. Atheism: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2003
  • Hughes, G. Is God to Blame? (on the problem of evil), Veritas 2007
  • Swinburne, R. The Coherence of Theism, Clarendon Press 1993
  • Timpe, K. Arguing About Religion, Routledge 2009
  • Vardy, P. The Puzzle of God, 3rd ed., Fount 1999

PHILOSOPHY OF MIND

  • Baggini, J. Philosophy: Key Themes, Palgrave MacMillan 2002: written for the A level
  • Blackmore, S. Consciousness: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2005
  • Churchland, P. (1988) Matter and Consciousness, rev. ed. (MIT Press): an accessible classic
  • Crane, T. Elements of Mind, OUP 2002: an excellent, but occasionally challenging, introduction to intentionality, the mind-body problem, consciousness, propositional attitudes and perception
  • Crane, T. The Mechanical Mind, Penguin 1995: an excellent introduction to topics on the border between philosophy of mind and philosophy of cognitive science
  • Graham, G. Philosophy of Mind, Blackwell 1998: a very approachable and engaging introduction to many topics on the syllabus
  • Guttenplan, S. (ed.) Companion to Philosophy of Mind, Blackwell 1994: an indispensable reference work with entries on many of the concepts and topics covered in the syllabus
  • Heil, J. Philosophy of Mind: a Contemporary Introduction (3rd ed.), Routledge 2014: a solid, detailed, and very up-to-date textbook written in a clear and well-organised way
  • Kim, J. Philosophy of Mind (3rd ed.), Westview 2011: as for Heil
  • Maslin, K. An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (2nd ed.), Polity Press 2007
  • Maslin, K. An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind, Polity Press 2001: written for the A level
  • Ravenscroft, I. Philosophy of Mind, OUP 2005: a very clear introduction, pitched for the complete beginner
  • Searle, J. Mind: a Brief Introduction, OUP 2004: a different approach that introduces some of the difficult issues in Philosophy of Mind, and where we’ve gone wrong in thinking about them
  • Smith & Jones Philosophy of Mind, CUP 1986: as for Heil

FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM

VALUE OF ART

  • Dickie, G. Introduction to Aesthetics, OUP 1997
  • Lyas, C. Aesthetics, Routledge 1997
  • Neill & Ridley, Arguing About Art, Routledge 2007
  • Sheppard, A. Aesthetics, OUP 1987
  • Warburton, N. The Art Question, Routledge 2003
  • Wollheim, R. Art and Its Objects, CUP 1980

METAPHYSICS

  • Loux, M. Metaphysics, Routledge 2006, Ch. 1, 2
  • O’Hear, A. What Philosophy Is (esp. Ch. 1, pp. 11-86), Penguin 2002
  • Rea, M. Arguing About Metaphysics, Routledge 2009
  • Russell, B. Problems of Philosophy (various editions, e.g. Opus 2001)
  • Van Inwagen, Metaphysics, Westview Press 2002

PLATO REPUBLIC

  • Annas, J. Plato: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2002
  • Daniel, D. Briefly: Plato’s Republic, SCM Press 2006
  • Flew, A. Introduction to Western Philosophy, Thames & Hudson, 1989, Ch. 2
  • Pappas, N. Plato and the Republic, Routledge 2003, esp. Ch. 3, 7
  • Press, G. Plato: A Guide for the Perplexed, Continuum 2007
  • Purshouse, L. Plato’s Republic, Continuum 2006
  • Sheppard, D. Plato’s Republic, Edinburgh University Press 2009

DESCARTES MEDITATIONS

  • Daniel, D. Briefly: Descartes’ Meditations, SCM Press 2006
  • Francks, R. Descartes’ Meditations, Continuum 2008
  • Hatfield, G. Descartes and the Meditations, Routledge 2003
  • Jones, G. et. al. The Meditations: Rene Descartes, John Murray 2006
  • Skirry, J Descartes: A Guide for the Perplexed, Continuum 2008
  • Sorell, T. Descartes: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2000
  • Southwell, G. A Beginner’s Guide to Descartes’ Meditations, Blackwell 2008
  • Williams, B. Descartes: the Project of Pure Enquiry, Penguin 1985/Routledge 2005

HUME, D. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING

  • Ayer, A. J. Hume: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2000
  • Baggini, J. Philosophy: Key Texts, Palgrave MacMillan 2002
  • Bailey & O’Brien, Hume’s Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Continuum 2006
  • Coventry, A. Hume: A Guide for the Perplexed, Continuum 2007
  • Daniels, D. Briefly: Hume’s Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, SCM Press 2007
  • Noonan, H. Hume on Knowledge, Routledge 1999

MILL, J. S. ON LIBERTY

  • Berger, F. Happiness, Justice and Freedom, University of California Press 1984
  • Gray, J. J. S. Mill’s ‘On Liberty’ in Focus, Routledge 1991
  • Gray, J. Mill On Liberty: a Defence, Routledge 1996 Myerson, G. Mill’s On Liberty, Hodder Arnold 2001
  • Riley, J. Mill on Liberty, Routledge 1998
  • Ryan, A. The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill, Palgrave Macmillan 1998
  • Scarre, G. Mill’s On Liberty, Continuum 2007

NIETZSCHE, F. BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL

  • Acampora & Pearson, Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, Continuum 2010
  • Burnham, D. Reading Nietzsche, Acumen 2007
  • Daniel, D. Briefly: Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, SCM Press 2007
  • Hill, R K Nietzsche: A Guide for the Perplexed, Continuum 2007
  • Southwell, G. A Beginner’s Guide to Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, Wiley Blackwell 2009
  • Tanner, M. Nietzsche: a Very Short Introduction, OUP 2000

Welcome!

Welcome to the online resources accompanying AS Critical Thinking for AQA by Oliver McAdoo. AS Critical Thinking for AQA is the definitive textbook for students of the current AQA Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabus. Structured very closely around the AQA specification, it covers the two units of the AS level in an exceptionally clear and student-friendly style.

What you will find on this website:

  • Student Resources: Gain access to multiple choice questions, flash cards, gap fill exercises, a glossary and useful links.
  • Instructor Resources: Gain access to extensive resources including overviews, walk throughs, PowerPoint presentations and handouts.
  • Buy the Book: Purchase additional copies of this book.
  • Philosophy Arena: Routledge's main website for this subject area. Get more information about our books, journals and electronic publishing.

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