When it comes to thinking about dissertations, it's useful to know how and where to look for material, both within Cambridge and further afield. The following is some guidance on finding various different types of material, whether primary or secondary.
Finding books in Cambridge ● Ebooks ● Finding books outside Cambridge ● Finding articles ● Unpublished material
Online sources ● Archives ● Subject gateways
For further help our LibGuide has lots of information about how to carry out research in History.
Finding secondary material
The best place to begin looking for secondary material is a specialist bibliographical database covering your area of interest, eg. the Bibliography of British and Irish History. Teaching staff will be able to advise on what databases there are in your subject area, or you can look at the Seeley's online resources pages, which break down electronic resources by Part I paper. However, there may not be a specialist database covering your topic, in which case a more general literature search may be the best way to begin. Literature searches may also help you to find supplementary material, and to identify what is available within Cambridge.
Before you begin looking for secondary material, you may find it useful to look at the following guidance, from the University Library's Research Skills Programme:
Literature searches will help you to identify a viable topic of research, or a new angle from which to approach a subject, and they will also ensure that you do not duplicate work in progress. You will need to be compiling lists of material to consult at the same time as taking organised notes and writing; you should not wait to complete the reading before beginning to write.
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Finding books in Cambridge
For searching across library catalogues in Cambridge, use iDiscover; as well as searching library holdings it also retrieves records for ejournals and ebooks, and can be extended to search databases such as JSTOR. You can also turn searches into RSS feeds (for alerts when any relevant items are added to the catalogue), and create lists of resources with the My Discovery tool.
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The University's ebooks@cambridge project subscribes to hundreds of ebook titles, including key resources such as the Cambridge Histories and Cambridge Companions. These are searchable through iDiscover; if there is an electronic copy of the book you are looking for, it will have the phrase "[electronic resource]" in the record after the title, and you can follow the link in the record directly through to the text. Ebooks are easy to use, can be accessed from home (with your Raven password), and can normally have several users accessing the text simultaneously, so access is almost always available.
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Finding books outside Cambridge
You may need to extend your search beyond Cambridge, to see if there is material available elsewhere which is not held by any of the libraries in the university. Copac is the best way for finding material held in libraries in the United Kingdom; it is the combined catalogue of the UK's major research libraries (including the British Library, National Library of Scotland and National Library of Wales), as well as various specialist research libraries and collections (there is a list of participating institutions). The catalogue contains over 32 million records. It is possible to search by subject, author, title or keyword, and you can restrict your search by date, place published, type of material (eg. periodicals, maps), or language. Search results will display where an item is held, and provide links to an electronic copy, if there is a freely available one. It is also possible to set up RSS feeds for alerts. There are help pages available.
Items not available in Cambridge can be borrowed via theUL's Inter-Library Loans service. If you are working away from Cambridge (for example, during the vacation), you may be able to get access to other higher education libraries in your area; see the UL's page on vacation access for more information.
For catalogues of libraries outside the United Kingdom, look at the UL's Libraries Worldwide page, or try WorldCat, a catalogue of over 10,000 libraries, which indexes 1.5 billion items.
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You will need to look at journal articles as well as books, as journals are often where the latest, most up-to-date historical research is published. There are several citation databases which you can search for articles which might be relevant to your topic. As well as general historical databases, there are also more specialised ones, covering various regions, periods and topics. (Most of these will require a Raven password for off-campus access.) To search across the full range of electronic journals Cambridge subscribes to go to the ejournals@cambridge page. It is also possible to search across popular databases for article titles (as opposed to journal titles) using the articles tab on the eresources@cambridge page.
Key general databases
- Historical Abstracts: This covers the history of the world from 1450 to the present (excluding the United States and Canada). Published since 1954, it indexes over 3,100 academic historical journals in more than 40 languages; thousands of new citations are added every year.
- Web of Knowledge: This database encompassesthe Arts and Humanities Citation Index, the Social Sciences Citation Index and the Science Citation Index, multidisciplinary databases which index journal articles. Search results include an "@cam - find full text" button, which will search for electronic and hard copies of the journal in Cambridge.
Digital journal archives
- JSTOR: A digital archive of over 1,000 journals; it can be subject-searched and gives immediate online access to articles in titles to which the University subscribes. Online tutorials for using JSTOR are available.
- Project Muse: Full-text access to nearly 500 journals from over 130 scholarly publishers.
- America: History and Life: A companion title to Historical Abstracts. There is not online access, but the print copy can be found in the University Library (North Front, Floor 6, classmark: P660.b.31).
- Bibliography of British and Irish History: A bibliographical database of historical writing dealing with the British Isles, the British Empire and the Commonwealth, from 55 B.C. to the present, containing over 500,000 records. (It is worth noting that it is not an exhaustive bibliography of works relating to the British Empire and the Commonwealth; it covers the relations of those countries in the Empire and the Commonwealth with Britain.)
- Bibliography of Asian Studies: A bibliographical database covering articles and book chapters on all parts of Asia published since 1971.
- Index Islamicus: A bibliographical database of books, articles and reviews on Islam and the Muslim world.
- International Medieval Bibliography: A bibliographical database covering medieval civilization, containing over 440,000 records.
- Iter Bibliography: A bibliographical database covering the Middle Ages and Renaissance (400-1700), containing over 1.1 million records.
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Unpublished material (dissertations and theses)
There are several different databases for searching for university dissertations and theses, whether produced in the United Kingdom or further afield.
- History Online: Contains a directory of history theses and research Masters produced in the U.K. since 1970, along with a list of theses currently in progress.
- EThOS: The national thesis service: a British Library-administered database of over 300,000 theses from U.K. universities. Those which have already been digitized can be downloaded for free, but if the thesis you want to look at has not yet been digitized, you will have to pay a fee. (Cambridge dissertations are listed on Ethos but not supplied by the service.
- ProQuest Digital Dissertations: A database of 2.4 million dissertation and theses citations from 700 academic institutions worldwide, offering full text for most of the dissertations added since 1997.
- Apollo: Cambridge University's institutional repository. Includes a collection of voluntarily deposited Ph.D. theses.
For more information, see the University Library's Electronic Theses and Dissertations page.
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Finding primary sources
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The Seeley's online resources pages provide links to some useful electronic resources for history, broken down by Part I paper. These include primary sources, as well as bibliographical databases, and comprise both resources subscribed to by the University Library (which will require Raven passwords for off-campus access), and material which is freely available. You can access more online resources through the UL's eresources@cambridge page, which includes links to visual and sound resources, film and video services, and newspapers (both archives and current).
Some examples of online collections of primary source material:
- American Memory (Library of Congress): online collection of documents for American history, comprising written and spoken words, sound recordings, still and moving images, prints, maps, and sheet music.
- BritishHistory Online: digital library of primary and secondary sources for medieval and modern history of the British Isles
- Empire Online: online collection of original documents relating to empire studies, including exploration journals, periodicals, government papers, maps.
- First World War: Personal Experiences: database of digital images of original documents, including diaries, letters, personal narratives, scrapbooks, and visual sources.
- German History in Documents and Images: digital collection of original historical materials documenting German history from the beginning of the early modern period to the present.
- House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, 1688-2010: digital library of House of Commons sessional papers from 1715, with supplementary material back to 1688.
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The Janus catalogue provides access to more than 1800 catalogues of archives held throughout Cambridge, including the archives of many colleges, and of the Churchill Archives Centre.
The Seeley itself does not hold archival material, but it does have some microfilms of archive material.
In the United Kingdom
You may need to visit archives outside Cambridge as part of your research. To find out what archival material is held where, there are various union catalogues of archive material:
- National Archives: Formerly the Public Record Office, this repository holds the national archives for England, Wales and the United Kingdom (there are separate national record offices for Scotland and Northern Ireland). They have extensive online catalogues, which can be searched by subject, and you can access their online collections and download copies of documents via the Discovery catalogue.
- National Register of Archives: A register of over 44,000 unpublished lists and catalogues, detailing the nature and location of manuscripts and historical records relating to British history. These are "non-official" archives covering the holdings of local record offices, national and university libraries (including Cambridge), specialist repositories, museums and other bodies in the United Kingdom and abroad, as well as papers held privately by individuals, firms and institutions. The research guides on the website explain how the National Register of Archives can be used for locating material on particular topics.
- Archives Hub: A national gateway to descriptions of archives of over 180 UK repositories (including Oxford and Cambridge); again, you can search by subject.
- Access to Archives: A combined catalogue describing archives held in 418 record offices and other repositories in England and Wales, dating from the eighth century to the present day.
To search the holdings of archives outside the United Kingdom, try Archive Grid, a major catalogue of historical documents, personal papers and family history material held in repositories around the world; you can search for collections by topic.
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Subject gateways are online portals to subject-specific resources, and can be excellent places to look for more information on your topic. Some gateways where the sites have been evaluated by experts include:
- Intute: A gateway providing free access to Internet resources, evaluated and categorised by subject specialists based at U.K. universities. Intute's funding ceased in July 2011 and it is no longer being updated, but it remains a rich source of information on different resources.
- Internet for History: A free online tutorial to help history students develop Internet research skills; includes tips on useful sites for historians.
- History Online: Created by the Institute of Historical Research, this initiative indexes books and journal articles, details history lecturers in the U.K., digital history projects, and current and past historical research.
- History Data Service: This project collects, preserves, and promotes the use of digital resources, which result from or support historical research, learning and teaching.
- Connected Histories: A collection of digital resources on early modern and 19th century British history.
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The way you approach your question will have a profound effect upon the way you construct your dissertation, so this section discusses the types of research you might undertake for your dissertation. The use of literature and case studies is considered and the merits of primary research are debated and advice is given on the use of existing research data. You may not be fond of statistics, but the potential relevance of a quantitative approach should be considered and similarly, the idea of qualitative analysis and conducting your own research may yield valuable data. The possibilities of using quantitative and qualitative data are also discussed.
Watch video on approaching methodologies (.wmv)
What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative?
This video clip contains comments from the following academics:
- Dr Iain Garner - Psychology
- Alan McGauley - Social Policy
- Shawna McCoy - Criminology
- Kevin Bonnett - Sociology
What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative?
Your approach, research design, and research question are all connected. 'Approach' means something more than the type of data you use – it refers to your overall orientation to research and the type of claims you will make for your study. Dissertations can be based on either quantitative or qualitative data, or on a combination of both. How you choose this may depend on your preferences and abilities, and the suitability of particular approaches to your topic. You need to be able to justify why you have chosen to use such data. Quantitative data is particularly useful when you wish to discover how common particular forms of behaviour such as illegal drug use are for a particular age group. Qualitative data is particularly useful when you wish to find out why people engage in such behaviour.
Think about the Research Methods modules you have taken so far. Think about the different kinds of studies you have read for other modules. There is plenty of scope to use the approaches and methods that you are most comfortable with. You need to justify your approach and methods and to cite appropriate literature to help you do this.
What if I want to find out about social trends, or the measurable effects of particular policies?
You will probably want to use large datasets and undertake quantitative data analysis, and you will be adopting a realist approach to the topic studied. Quantitative dissertations are likely to be nearer to the lower end of the range of approved lengths for the dissertation (e.g. if the length is to be 5,000-8,000 words, dissertations based on quantitative analysis are likely to be closer to 5,000 words in length). They will also include tables and figures giving your important findings. Remember that all tables must be carefully titled and labelled and that sources of your data must be acknowledged.
What if I want to record people's views on an issue, and give them a 'voice'?
You will probably want to use in-depth qualitative data, and you may wish to adopt a realist, a phenomenologist, or a constructionist approach to the topic. Qualitative dissertations will include descriptive material, usually extracts from interviews, conversations, documents or field notes, and are therefore likely to be nearer to the upper limit of your word range (e.g. 8,000 words). The types of method suitable for a dissertation could include content analysis, a small scale ethnographic study, small scale in-depth qualitative interviewing.
Whether you choose qualitative or quantitative analysis will depend on several things:
- Your preferred philosophical approach (realist, phenomenologist or constructionist).
- Your skills and abilities with methods of data collection (if needed) and analysis.
- The topic or issue you are interested in.
- How you frame your research question.
Can I combine qualitative and quantitative methods?
There are many ways in which qualitative and quantitative data and analysis can be combined. Here are two examples.
- You may be interested in doing an analysis that is primarily quantitative, looking at social trends, or policy implications. However you also want to introduce a 'human touch' by conducting one or several interviews asking what these trends mean to people or how particular individuals experience events. After doing your quantitative analysis, you should include a chapter or section on the qualitative data you have collected. In your discussion of findings you can use the qualitative data to help you understand the patterns in the quantitative analysis.
- You may be interested in doing an evaluative case study of a process or policy. You will have a particular focus – a 'case' that you are looking at. You will triangulate methods – i.e. collect data in several different ways, and some of these data may be quantitative. You will analyse each type of data and describe this, and then write a discussion that shows how each piece of analysis contributes to the overall picture of what is going on.
Your supervisor or research methods tutor may be able to give you detailed examples of these or other ways to combine methods.
Can my dissertation be entirely literature-based?
Yes. If you decide to do a primarily theoretical dissertation, it is almost certain that your dissertation will be entirely literature-based. This is likely to be the methodology of theoretical analysis: selection and discussion of theoretical material and descriptive material, in context, and detailed comparison of theories in terms of their applicability. You might ask how useful certain concepts or theories are for understanding particular patterns of behaviour. How useful is the concept of institutional racism? Is objectivity in the media possible? How useful is subcultural theory for understanding virtual communities? Here, the focus of attention is not so much to discover something about the social world, for example virtual communities, as to reach a judgement about the value of key concepts or theories in understanding that world. How the study is approached and how contrasting approaches are drawn upon needs to be stated very clearly.
A library-based or theoretical study is not necessarily 'easier' than an empirical study, indeed, it may well be harder. Remember that theoretical studies, like data-based studies, need to have their research design spelled out from the start.
But even if your dissertation is more empirically focused, it could still be entirely literature-based. You might choose to conduct a review of a field of work. What does the research literature in this field tell us about x? While all dissertations will include a literature review, it is possible to produce a dissertation that is entirely based on a review of the literature. If you do this, it is important to review the literature from an explicit angle and identify some themes to make the review distinctive. You might, for example, explore empirical debates in your chosen field across different countries or time periods.
What is case study research?
Whilst it is possible for dissertations to be entirely literature-based, the most common form of dissertation takes the form of a case study. Here the focus of attention is on a particular community, organisation or set of documents. The attraction of this kind of dissertation is that it stems from empirical curiosity but is at the same time practical. You may be interested in a wider question but a case study enables you to focus on a specific example. A major challenge in case study dissertations is connecting your own primary research or re-analysis with the broader theoretical themes and empirical concerns of the existing literature.
What's an empirical study?
Most dissertations demand either primary or secondary research. In other words, you usually have to analyse data that you have either collected yourself or data that is already available. The reason for this is that the questions dissertations usually address take the following form: Is x happening? Is x changing? Why is x happening? Why is x changing? These questions demand primary or secondary analysis of data.
Case Study 9 Think hard before you decide to undertake empirical research: a student's view
What is secondary analysis?
Secondary analysis is when you analyse data which was collected by another researcher. It allows the researcher to explore areas of interest without having to go through the process of collecting data themselves in the field. The problem with using fieldwork methods in an undergraduate dissertation, however, is that they are costly in terms of time (which is relatively scarce in your final year!) and possibly your own financial resources too. You may choose, therefore, to undertake secondary research, analysing existing data.
Where do I find existing research data?
There are a range of documents that already contain research data that you can analyse. You may, for example, be interested in exploring whether gender stereotypes in the media are changing. This might entail content analysis of newspapers, magazines, video or other media over different time periods. Here you would not be collecting your own data but instead would be analysing existing documents.
Download Case Study 6 Media research
If you are interested, for example, in doing historical research, you may need to visit archives. Government reports and autobiographies may also be used as data.
Other documents include official statistics, datasets (statistical data), and banks of interview transcripts which are all freely available to the academic community. Increasingly, documents, databases and archives are readily accessible online. Research Methods tutors on your course will be able to advise on the availability and accessibility of such data sets.
There are some advantages of doing secondary analysis, particularly if you are doing a quantitative study. You will be able to work with much larger datasets than you could have collected yourself. This has the following advantages:
- They allow you to discuss trends and social changes.
- The data are often collected through a random sample, which allows you to generalise to the population under consideration.
- They may also allow you to make comparisons over time, as some datasets are products of longitudinal studies. Examples of large datasets include the British Crime Survey, and the Youth Cohort Study. Smaller, more targeted datasets may also be available.
- Secondary analysis has disadvantages also: the data were collected for a purpose different from yours.
- You have to find out something about that purpose, as well as the methods of collection, in order to justify your use of a secondary dataset.
Collecting you own data - primary research
Quantitative data may also result from non-participant observations or other measurements (e.g. in an experimental design). Also, sometimes data that are collected through qualitative processes (participant observation, interviews) are coded and quantified. Your research methods tutor can give you further information on these types of data, but here are some common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions:
A series of questions that the respondent answers on their own. Self-completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on relatively simple topics, and for gaining a general overview of an issue. Questionnaires need to have clear questions, an easy to follow design, and not be too long.
Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the questions that are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee. The same questions are read out in the same way to all respondents. There will typically be a fixed choice of answers for the respondents.
Watching people and recording systematically their behaviour. Prior to the observation, an observation schedule will be produced which details what exactly the researcher should look for and how those observations should be recorded.
If you are conducting a qualitative analysis you are likely to wish to use at least some original material. This may be collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation recordings and fieldnotes, non-participant observation, or some combination of these. Below are some data collection methods that you might want to use for your dissertation:
A way of asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more control of the interview. The interview could be semi-structured, which uses an interview schedule to keep some control of the interview, but also allows for some flexibility in terms of the interviewee’s responses. The interview could be unstructured, here the aim is to explore the interviewee’s feelings about the issue being explored and the style of questioning is very informal. Or the interview could be a life history where the interviewer tries to find out about the whole life, or a portion of the person’s life.
A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an emphasis in the questioning on a tightly defined topic; the accent is on interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. The moderator tries to provide a relatively free rein to the discussion.
This involves studying people in naturally occurring settings. The researcher participates directly in the setting and collects data in a systematic manner. The researcher will observe behaviour, listen to conversations, and ask questions.
Spend some time looking at general books about research - they will give you an overview of the data collection methods available and help you to make the best choice for your project. Bryman (2004) would be a useful starting point.
For any piece of research you conduct, be it empirically based (quantitative or qualitative) or library based, its methods must be justified. You need to show in the final dissertation how you have given consideration to different methods, and why you have chosen and eliminated these.
STUDENT VOICE: Findings from our research
In our study, supervisors saw part of their role as someone who draws out students’ reasons for choosing a particular research approach. Often in early supervision meetings they ask students to justify their reasons for choosing a library-based or an empirical study. (Todd, Smith and Bannister 2006, p167).
Your supervisor will want you to offer convincing reasons as to why you’ve chosen the approach you have - so be ready!
If you’re having difficulty making that choice, don’t be afraid to ask your supervisor for their advice. This was particularly useful for one of our respondents:
It's been a valuable experience for me it's so different from other stuff. With other essays you can rush them if you have to ... but this is so much work, you can't rush it. It demands more. (Todd, Bannister and Clegg, 2004, p340)
….My reasons for data collection is literature based as my research question involved sensitive subjects which would have been unsuitable for primary data collection. (Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University)
I chose primary data because it would enable me to build skills that would be useful for postgraduate study. (Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University)
It will involve primary data, secondary data, quantitative and qualitative research methods, lit reviews, theory and policy studies and an exploration of alternatives. My dissertation is to be based around the experience of 'poverty', as poverty is the experience. Theories and policies are not. However, to do justice to the subject, theories and policies will be included so Iam able to demonstrate where failures in the system may exist. (Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University)
Note: Research must be conducted in a sensible and ethical manner; data must be analysed and presented in a rational manner. It is important that students do not expose themselves or others to dangers or risks when conducting research. Students need the approval of their dissertation supervisor before embarking on any type of fieldwork (see the section on Research Ethics for more information).
Will my research be inductive or deductive?
In general, deductive research is theory-testing and inductive research is theory-generating. Often people link deductive research with quantitative experiments or surveys, and inductive research with qualitative interviews or ethnographic work. These links are not hard and fast – for instance, experimental research, designed to test a particular theory through developing a hypothesis and creating an experimental design, may use quantitative or qualitative data or a combination. If your research starts with a theory and is driven by hypotheses that you are testing (e.g. that social class background and social deprivation or privilege are likely to affect educational attainment), it is, broadly speaking, deductive. However much research combines deductive and inductive elements.
What's all this about research design?
Research design is vital to conducting a good piece of work. At the start of your research you need to set down clearly:
- Your research focus and research question.
- How you propose to examine the topic:
- methods of data collection
- methods of data analysis
- The types and sources of information you need.
- How you will access these sources of information (be they people, existing datasets, biographical accounts, media articles or websites, official records).
- The proposed outcome of this research (in your case, a dissertation) and the form it will take.
- A time-frame for all this.
You and your supervisor will discuss your design and decide whether the research is 'do-able'. Your university may require you to produce a report (e.g. an 'interim framework report' or a short 'research proposal') that specifies your research design. Other people may have to look at the design to ascertain whether there are ethical issues that affect your research.
- Quantitative or qualitative? A quantitative approach will mean you will need substantial datasets, as well as the inclusion of tables and statistics in your final submission. This information could come from a variety of sources - remember to acknowledge them! A qualitative approach will probably mean conducting interviews or focus groups or observing behaviour. Ask yourself if you are prepared to do this, and think about the best way of getting the answers you want from people. Will you stop people in the street? Will you conduct telephone interviews? Will you send out survey forms and hope that people return them? Will you be a participant or non participant observer?
- Deductive or inductive?Deductive research is theory-testing, which is often linked to datasets, surveys or quantitative analysis. Inductive research is theory-generating, and is often linked to qualitative interviews.
- Empirical or theoretical? An empirical study could involve close analysis of statistics or some form of qualitative research. However, a theoretical study brings its own challenges, and you may be called upon to compare theories in terms of their applicability.
- Once you have decided upon your approach, you can write out a research design, i.e. how you are going to approach the project.
- Now look a little at the research methods that you have studied. Apart from matching your research to your general sense of objective/subjective reality, it is important to ensure that you match your methodology to the problem you are pursuing.
- What kind of data do you need to answer your question/test your hypothesis? How would you best be able to collect that data?
- Again, consider time and feasibility of the exercise. The ability to manage your time will be directly related to your ability to control the boundaries of the study – especially if it is closely linked to your workplace.
- Now that you have got so far, try to write up your research proposal as far as you can. Make sure that you identify where your proposal needs further work and, at the same time, where you will have to put your maximum effort. It may be helpful to draw a critical path so that you are clear which actions you need to take and in what sequence. You will find it helpful to plot your research questions on the chart on the next page and ensure that your plans for collecting data really answer the question as well as avoiding ethical problems.
- At this stage you must be really ruthless with yourself. How viable is it? What are the threats to the study? Try some 'what if?' questions on yourself. It will be better to go back to the drawing board now, than once the project is underway.
- IMPORTANT: Whatever approach you settle on, you MUST be able to justify its appropriateness to your topic and question.
- Does the data required to answer your question already exist or will you have to generate your own data?
- Can you combine quantitative with qualitative methods? e.g. a survey which includes interviews or a case study that looks at a situation from numerous angles.
- What factors may limit the scope of your research? (time, resources, etc.)
- Which method(s) best suit the questions and time you have available to do this study?
- Do you know the differences between types of data, and types of analysis?
- Does your project have clear links between theory and practice?
BRYMAN, A. (2004). Social Research Method. 2nd ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press
CRESWELL, J. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2nd ed., London, Sage
SEALE, C.(2006).Researching society and culture. London, Sage
Here are some references for specific methods:
ARKSEY, H and KNIGHT, P. (1999).Interviewing for social scientists: an introductory resource. London, Sage
DALE, A.; ARBER, S.; AND PROCTOR, M.(1998).Doing Secondary Analysis. London, Allen and Unwin
HAMMERSLEY, M. and ATKINSON, P. (1995).Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London, Routledge
OPPENHEIM, A. N. (1992).Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London, Pinter
Identifying a research topic:
A template for structured observation:
A site devoted to survey design:
A chapter on structured interviewing:
A chapter on qualitative interviewing:
An introduction to ethnographic research:
Materials for focus group interviews:
1. © Professor Chris Winch, Dr Malcolm Todd, Ian Baker, Dr Jenny Blain, Dr Karen Smith