All good journalism requires editing – and that includes pictures.
Editing is a vital part of the photojournalism process, and anyone who takes or works with pictures must know some of the basic principles and procedures. These include selection, cropping, enhancing and sizing.
Many factors go into an editor’s or photojournalist’s decision to use a photograph, and there are no definitive guidelines governing their selection. Two major purposes of publishing photographs are to capture the attention of the reader and to illustrate and supplement the editorial content.
At the beginning of the process of selection the first purpose (capturing the attention of the reader) will most likely be the major consideration. What kinds of photos do people look at? The following are some photographic elements editors consider in the selection process.
- Drama. It is the pictures that tell a story that are most likely to be chosen by an editor for publication. Pictures that have high dramatic quality are those in which readers can clearly tell what is happening; in fact, there may be several things happening, as in an accident scene with someone standing nearby with an anguished expression.
- Emotion. Like dramatic pictures, those with emotional qualities often tell a story. Yet they may also be the type that do not contain highly dramatic or story-telling qualities but rather evoke some emotion in the mind of the viewer. An old journalistic proverb says that readers will always look at pictures of children and animals. These are the kinds of pictures that make the readers feel something.
- Action. Editors and readers are most likely to be drawn to pictures with some action or movement in them. Pictures suggesting movement will be seen and studied by readers more readily than still-life pictures. Even though a photograph by itself cannot move, if its content indicates movement, it can serve as an extremely good attention-capturing device for the editor to use.
- Artistic or technical quality. Here we are talking about the good photograph, the one that has sharp, clear focus and good framing or that presents a subject in an unusual or pleasing manner. This kind of picture often appears in newspapers, especially with the change of seasons.
- Bizarre or unusual subjects. A picture of something unusual, something not likely to be seen by readers in their everyday lives, makes a good candidate for publication. Unusual subjects may stem from the day’s news events, such as a fire or wreck, or they may be simply something a photographer has happened upon or heard about, such as a twelve-pound tomato or an old man’s wizened expression.
- Prominence. Like the news value of the same name, prominence is a quality editors often consider in selecting pictures. Pictures of famous people are always likely candidates for publication, even when they do not contain any of the qualities mentioned above. Readers will look at pictures of famous people, and editors will use such pictures for precisely that reason.
A good picture editor must have a “feel” for spotting the good photograph, one that will capture the attention of the reader, illustrate the editorial content and enhance the overall quality of the publication.
Cropping means taking out parts of a picture. It has two purposes: eliminating unnecessary parts of a picture and emphasizing or enhancing parts of a picture.
Eliminating unnecessary parts of a picture. Some elements of a picture may simply be unnecessary to the subject and purpose of the photograph, and they should be eliminated. Often these parts are not only wasteful but also distracting. An editor must use the space in the paper efficiently, and proper cropping of a photograph is one way to do this. Good, tight cropping of pictures is just as important as editing to eliminate unnecessary parts of a story.
Emphasizing or enhancing parts of a picture. One photograph may contain many pictures within it. A good picture editor must have an eye for these pictures within pictures and must be able to see and choose the picture that best fits the intended purpose. Cropping is a way of bringing out the particular picture the editor wants to use, of emphasizing the part of the picture that readers should notice. A picture that seems ordinary at first glance may be made dramatic by good cropping.
Photographs often need some adjustments or enhancements. Photo editing software allows photojournalists to change the brightness, enhance the color or even increase the sharpness of a picture. Photo editors should learn to use these with two principles in mind:
1. It’s better to do too little to a picture than too much.
2. The basic subject matter of the picture should never be changed.
Sizing and scaling
Scaling is the process of changing the size of a picture area by enlarging or reducing it while keeping the proportions of the original. Once an editor has selected and cropped a photograph for use in a publication, chances are the picture will not be the exact size needed. Enlargement or reduction will probably be needed to make the picture fit the standard column widths of the publication. When that reduction or enlargement is made, the editor will have to find out how deep the reproduction of the picture will be.
An editor may also have to change the resolution of the picture or the dpi (dots per inch), especially if the picture is going to be put on a web site. The best dpi for web pictures is 72.
The concept of proportionality must be understood by those who work with the scaling process. For our purposes, proportionality means that the width and depth of a picture must stay in the same proportion to each other whether the picture is enlarged or reduced. Let’s say a cropped picture is two inches wide and four inches deep — that the depth is twice the width. Given these dimensions, it does not matter how much the picture is enlarged or reduced; the depth will always be twice the width. The proportion must remain the same. The only way it can be changed is to re-crop the picture.
Here’s a very short video tutorial on resizing your photo in Photoshop. While the instructions are specific to Photoshop, the general principles and the specific steps are the same in most other photo editing programs:
Get a FREE copy of Kill the Quarterback
Get a free digital copy of Jim Stovall's mystery novel, Kill the Quarterback. You will also get Jim's newsletter and advanced notice of publications, free downloads and a variety of information about what he is working on. Jim likes to stay in touch, so sign up today.
Success! Now check your email to confirm your address.
xTurn on thread page Beta
Hello, lovely people!
After receiving numerous PMs asking me to share tips on how to achieve A*s in AQA A2 Biology and Chemistry, I thought it would be a good idea to create this thread. This is by no means a guide to achieve an A* but rather just a few tips that I used during my A2 levels.
So let's get started!
-POSTERS - posters are your best friend. Create large and colourful posters with only key information and diagrams. I find diagrams superb because they help me visualise information. So for example in biology I drew diagrams for all the cycles (Krebs, Calvin), this helped me remember them. This also helps condense key information and helps you understand key topics better. Stick them up in your study, your room or even around your house (if your parents don't mind) and try to read them every time you walk past them. It worked wonders for me.
-FLASHCARDS - these things are fabulous for memorising information and passing time on the bus. I had a pretty long journey to school so I made flashcards that I read on the way to and back from school. Colour co-ordinate all your cards, if you wish. What I did for chemistry was put all the mechanisms in one colour, equations in another and calculations in another. Also flashcards are very useful for testing your own knowledge. Write the question on one side and answer on another and test yourself.
-AUDIOS & PODCASTS -This might sound a little weird at first but I recorded myself speaking and listened back to it just before going to bed. That way, it stayed in my head. This is particularly good if you study languages because pronunciation is extremely important. It's also good because if you are anything like me, you get tired and bored from reading. So audios are a great way of relaxing from reading without feeling guilty.
-WRITING INFO over and over and over again - Yes I know it's tedious and boring but I personally couldn't find a better way than this for memorising lots of information. This isn't probably very applicable for chemistry but it's good for biology and essay writing subjects. If you are struggling to memorise things write them over an over and over again and I promise that it will stick in your brain.
-MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES - try not to use several different documents of notes for revision, just have one. In my case my teacher used to give us notes, I had the Nelson Thornes book, notes off the Internet and notes from my revision guide. Rather than read them all over and over again I used all sources to make my own notes. I didn't type up my notes because I can't learn from black and white texts, I find it too boring. I wrote all my notes by hand because I learn best from my own writing. It might work for you too!
For chemistry, this website http://chemrevise.org/revision-guides/ (great notes) along with http://www.a-levelchemistry.co.uk/ (practise questions) is your best friend! The Nelson Thornes book for chemistry is also very good - it gives clear, concise information. I would recommend buying the Collins revision guides: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0...AYRVAYGBQNJBAB.
Also do all the end of chapter and examination style questions along with all the past papers you can find. This website is good for past papers - http://www.xtremepapers.com/
Also this guy is an absolute legend, check his channel out:
For biology, I found the Nelson thrones book to be completely useless. There was so much rambling and useless information in that book. So I strongly recommend buying the Collins A2 biology revision guide - http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/aw/d/0007...&robot_redir=1
I only ever used to Nelson thrones book for questions. For practise I recommend that you do questions by topic. So find all the past papers and put questions of the same topic together. I found that very helpful because it enabled me to concentrate more on my weaker topics. This website is also very good for practise questions - http://sciencemathsmaster.weebly.com/
For the synoptic essay:
-keep recapping AS topics mainly the important ones such as plants can cells.
-Use this amazing document - http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/atta...0&d=1339779087 Try to learn the main points of each essay, if you can. At first this document may scare you because most of the essays are brilliant. But remember these essays were not done under timed exam conditions so yours won't be as good. There is no need to worry!
- You need to include extra knowledge in your essay so I recommend reading up on the kidneys as this has many topics that AQA could set an essay on e.g osmosis, ions, specialisation of cells. At first the kidneys can seem complex and if you get completely stuck, drop me a message.
Also I'm sure your teacher will let you know about how you should structure the essays etc.
Although this year will undoubtabely be the most stressful year of your school life with so many things going on at the same time it will definitely be one of the best. Make the most of this and remember: work hard, play hard.
Best of luck.
Ps. if some of the links do not work, let me know.
Thanks! Good read.
Keep getting recommended different books by different people. I don't know which ones are better since I've never read any of them
Edit: Those essays In that document are one and a half pages typed! That's like 5 sides of my handwriting. How long do we have to do the essays in the exam?